This post will cover lifetimes and regions in depth, with a focus on the mathematical background of regions. That is, what is a region? What rules do they follow? How does the compiler handle them? And how are they inferred?
Regions and their ordering
So, let’s briefly investigate what a region is. A region (or in Rust lingo, a lifetime) is a span of some form, e.g. the token stream. Regions have an outlive relation defined on them.
'b’s span is covered by
'a. For example:
'a: I----------------I 'b: I---------I
As you can see
'a: 'b since the first span covers the second. But what is the nature of the outlives relation?
Regions: a poset
One could mistakenly believe that regions are ordered over their outlives relation. An totally ordered set A under ≤ means that any elements a, b ∈ A satisfy all of the following statements:
If a ≤ b and b ≤ a are both satisfied, a = b.
If a ≤ b and b ≤ c are both satisfied, a ≤ c.
At least one of a ≤ b and b ≤ a is true.
To see why the outlives relation is not a total order over the set of regions, consider the case:
'a: I---------I 'b: I------------I
The third condition is not met here: neither
'a: 'b or
'b: 'a is true.
It turns out that weakening the last condition to only consider reflexivity gives us a structure, that L (the set of regions) classifies. Replace 3. by a ≤ a, and you get a partially ordered set, or a poset.
Outlive relation as a partial order
So, let’s briefly explain how the rules of outliving mirrors the rules of partial orders.
The first rule, the rule of antisymmetry, reads
'a: 'b 'b: 'a ------- 'a = 'b
So if two regions (lifetimes, borrows, scopes, etc.) outlives each other symmetrically (‘a: ‘b and ‘b: ‘a), they are, in fact, the same.
The second rule, the rule of transitivity, is crucial to understanding the semantics of regions:
'a: 'b 'b: 'c ------ 'a: 'c
In other words, regions are hierarchical. It might seem very simple, but the implications are in fact very important: it allows us to conclude things from transitivity. Think of it like you can “inherit” bounds from outliving regions.
'a: I--------------------I 'b: I----------------I 'c: I---------I
Say we know that,
'a: 'b, and
'b: 'c. We can then conclude that
The last rule simply states that ‘a outlives itself. This might seem counterintuitive due to the odd terminology, but think of outlives as “outlives or equals to”.
In fact, there is only one more thing we know about regions: they have an unique maximal extrema, which outlives all other regions,
'static outlives any region,
And that’s all the “axioms” of lifetimes.
What subtyping is
Before we go to next section, we will just have to briefly cover subtyping. τ is said to be a subtype of υ (denoted
τ <: υ), if a type mismatch, such that τ is inferred to be of type υ, makes the value of type τ coerce into a value of type υ.
In other words, you can replace your subtype by a supertype (the parent type) without getting a type mismatch error.
Regions are just types: Outlive relation as a subtyping rule
If you think about it, you may notice that lifetimes are used in type positions a lot. This is no coincidence, since regions are just types with a subtyping relation, which is the very reason you are allowed to do e.g.
In fact, the outlive relation defines a subtyping rule. That is, you can always “shrink” a region span. Let c be a type constructor, ‘a → *, then ‘a: ‘b implies that
'a <: 'b, that is
'a can coerce into
&'static str can coerce to any
&'a str, since
'static outlives any lifetime.
Due to the implementation, there are a few limits, though. You can for example not do
let a: 'a which would be useless anyways.
Syntactically, there is a confusion: lifetimes appears in certain trait places, especially in trait bounds. But, in fact, that is only a syntactic sugar for an imaginary trait, let’s call it
Scope, which takes a lifetime.
This represents the scope of a type, so when writing
fn my_func::<T: 'static>() you can think of it as writing
fn my_func::<T: Scope<'static>>.
Due to the coercion rules (which will be covered in a future post), this means that if
T: Scope<'a> and
U: Scope<'b> with
'a: 'b, then
T is a subtype of
This is the exciting part. Rust has region inference, allowing it to infer the lifetimes in your program.
Due to Rust’s aliasing guarantees, it tries to minimize the region’s span, while still satisfying the conditions (outlives relations) given.
So, this is just a classical optimization problem:
minimize 'a subject to A, B, C...
A, B, C… are outlives relations.
'a may or may not be free in those.
We will cover how we actually solve this optimization problem in a future blog post, but until then you can see if you can find an algorithm to do so ;).
Questions and errata
Ping me at #rust in Mozilla IRC.
Credits to Yaniel on IRC for the idea for the name of this series. It is based on the famous “lambda cats” series, but since Ferris, the crab, is our Rust mascot, we do lambda crabs, instead.
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